With rapid developments of the Internet
and Web technologies, the 21st century is a networked digital
information era. Accompanying this era, a new world (Cyberworld)
is on the way to be brought out. It is an interesting and
a full of mystery world. It is the time for us to discover
mysteries and make inventions, in particularly, in the fields
of world modeling and finding scientific and social laws for
guiding people's communications, collaborations and educations
in this exciting world. Let us face the challenges and enjoy
inventions in the 21st century!
My hobby is reading, traveling, cooking,
gardening, programming and badminton.
Publications (January 2001-December 2001)
- Runhe Huang, Jianhua Ma, and Qun Jin, A Shopping Negotiation
Agent that Adapts to User Preferences, Springer-Verlag
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS 2252), Vol. 2252,
- This paper describes a shopping negotiation agent that
can adapt user preferences and automatically negotiate
with its counter party on behalf of a user it represents.
Since different users can have different preferences,
it is important for the agent to have adaptation to different
user preferences. This can be achieved by acquiring user
preferences, tracing user's behavior on Web and mapping
the behavior to a set of the preference parameters, creating
the negotiation model class, and generating an instance
negotiation model object with new/updated preference parameters.
- Runhe Huang, Tao Huang, Jianhua Ma, Takeshi Yamazaki,
and Minetada Osano, A Hybrid Negotiation Model Based Online
Shopping System, in Proceedings of the Fourth International
Conference on Human and Computer, pp236-241, September 2001,
- With a reasonable negotiation model, shopping agents
can negotiate intelligently on behalf of real-world's
users to find a solution that maximizes the utility for
all users. This paper presents an online shopping system
that includes shopping agents, such as buyer agents and
seller agents, which are based on a hybrid negotiation
model and demonstrates how a shopping agent negotiates
intelligently with counter party regarding a product on
behalf of a user it represents.
- ao Huang, Runhe Huang, and Jianhua Ma, Negotiation
Modeling in E-trading, in Proceedings of the Fourth International
Conference on Human and Computer, pp230-235, September 2001,
- In this paper, a new negotiation model, called a hybrid
negotiation model, is proposed. The hybrid negotiation
model is a combination of an extended Bazaar model (a
sequential decision making based Bayesian learning model)
and a "lose bounded" Nash bargaining solution. With the
proposed negotiation model, agents that represent buyers
and sellers in the real-life can negotiate in an intelligent
way to effectively and efficiently reach agreement and
optimize their individual utility function, respectively,
in a trading business. How learning in negotiations is
proceeding and how common knowledge and public information
are employed to make initial strategies of negotiations
are described in details.
- Runhe Huang and Jianhua Ma, A Java Technology Based
Shared Browser for Tele-lecturing in University21, in
the Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Computational
Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA'01), pp298-302,
October 2001, Japan.
- This paper describes a shared browser and explains how
it is integrated into a virtual collaboration room (VCR)
and used to achieve effective and interactive tele-lecturing
in a virtual university, University21. The shared browser
allows multiple users in different remote sites to navigate
same web document in the mode of what you see is what
I see. This is a significant advantage over current popular
- Jianhua Ma and Runhe Huang, The Internet Group Tour
via a Shared Web Browser, in edited book: Enabling Society
with Information Technologies, published by Springer, pp69-78,
ISBN 4-431-70327-6, 2001.
-When a group of people would like to visit or access
the Internet together, it is necessary to have a shared
web browser following the mode of what-you-see-is-what-I-see
(WYSIWIS) that allows all group members to make inputs
to the browser and distributes the results among the all
members. This article presents our design and implementation
of such a shared browser using the server-client model
and Java technology. All users who connect to a same server
of a shared browser belong to a same group, and see a
same web page, and different groups must run their own
- Runhe Huang and Jianhua Ma, An Object, Session, and
Room Persistence in VCR for Enhancing Online Learning Effectiveness,
in CD Proceedings of International Conference on Information
Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET2001),
July 2001, Japan.
- This paper explains what is an object, a session, and
a room persistence in a virtual collaboration room, and
describes functions of object recording/replaying, session
recording/replaying, and object and room persistence in
VCR, and finally demonstrates by examples how the functions
are used to solve schedule conflicting problems in a synchronous
group activity and to support asynchronous group activities
as well. Online learning is improved with the functions
in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.
- Runhe Huang and Jianhua Ma, A Platform Independent
Shared Web Browser, Journal of Internet Technology, Volume
2, No.4, pp301- 308, 2001.
-The current popular browsers such as Microsoft Internet
Explorer and Netscape Communicator allow only an individual
to freely navigate on the Web. Our shared Web browser
enables multi-users in physically different sites to simultaneously
navigate the Web-based virtual world together. Using the
shared browser, a group of users share not only a Web
document but also operations on the browser and Web documents.
In this article, we present the shared Web browser in
details including command server, Web proxy server, and
client and show its application in a multimedia collaboration
system - VCR (Virtual Collaboration Room) as an object.
The shared Web browser has potential applications in many
other systems, such as tele-lecturing, tele-conferencing,
shopping together in e-commerce, and group virtual tour.
- Jianhua Ma and Runhe Huang, Designs and Implementations
of University21, Computer Journal, Vol. 13, N0. 2, pp17-45,
- University21 is an integrated educational system (IES)
aimed at supporting all teaching, learning and administrating
activities in Internet and Web based virtual universities
of various scales. It consists of three parts: cyber-campus,
facilities, and agents. In this article, we describe the
functionality and composition of each part in details
and demonstrate how they support to each other. It is
emphasized that intelligent software agents can assist
people and their work in a virtual university.
- Timothy K. Shih, Shi-Kuo Chang, Jeffrey Tsai, Jianhua
Ma and Runhe Huang, Supporting Well-Engineered Web Documentation
Development-A Multimedia Software Engineering Approach towards
Virtual University Courseware Designs, Annuals of Software
Engineering International Journal, 2001 (accepted). 2001.
-Distance learning has become a very important mechanism
for virtual university operation. In order to realize
such an operation smoothly, it is necessary to consider
distance learning from three perspectives: administration,
awareness, and assessment. We are currently implementing
a virtual university environment according to these guidelines.
In this paper, we propose part of such a supporting environment
of the Multimedia Macro-University project1. One of the
most important focuses is a Web course development paradigm.
On the other hand, software development paradigms were
developed to support program construction. However, these
traditional paradigms do not completely fit the needs
of Web document development due to the following reasons.
It is therefore necessary to investigate a new software
development paradigm for developing Web documents. In
this article, we propose such a new paradigm and its supporting
environment, as well as software testing/metrics mechanisms
for Web documents. The system is implemented as a three-tier
architecture, which runs under MS Windows.
- Timothy K. Shih, Shi-Kuo Chang, Jianhua Ma and Runhe
Huang, Web Learning Assessment and Adaptive Tutoring,
Journal of Applied Systems Studies, Cambridge International
Science Publishing, 2001 (accepted).
- Web-based distance learning is a trend of instruction
delivery. One of the most difficult challenges of such
a learning mechanism is the assessment of students' learning
criteria. It is hard to judge the behavior of a student
since the instructor is separated spatially and temporally
from the students. However, it is possible to rely on
some Web-based tools to keep track of a student's course
attendance, as well as the navigation behavior of that
student. In addition, the navigation behavior of an individual
can be compared to those of others. Analysis can be conducted.
And interactive tutorial can be generated to assist the
student of poor score. This paper proposes such a mechanism,
as well as its supporting system run on Windows browsers.
- Qun Jin, J. Ma, R. Huang and T.K. Shih, Design Principles
of an Open Agent Architecture for Web-based Learning Community,
in CD Proceedings of World Conference on Education Multimedia,
hypermedia & Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA2001), pp829-834,
Tampere, Finland, June, 2001.
- There is an inevitable choice to use various agents
to assist or replace human to a certain extent for the
work in a virtual learning community. There is a strong
need for the development of the designated architecture
for integrating and using various agents. This research
is focused on developing an open agent architecture that
can easily integrate developed agents to a learning system
and flexibly modify the agents with permission. This paper
describes the design ideas of such desired architecture,
demonstrates how the architecture system works, and explains
three agents in a Web-based learning system, University21.
- Runhe Huang, Jianhua Ma and Timothy K Shih, Integrating
Agents into a Virtual University via an Open Agent Architecture,
in Edited Proceeding of Advanced in Educational Technologies,
pp1-8, International Conference on Intelligent Multimedia
and Distance Education, June, 2001, USA.
- A virtual university is far beyond putting learning
materials into a Web site. Like a real physical university,
it has enormous work involved with people, environment
and facilities. Instead of employing lot of manpower like
in a real university, a virtual university can use various
agents to assist or replace human to a certain extend
for the work involved in a virtual university. As agents
are intelligent software programs that can be developed
by different parties, how to integrate the developed agents
to a virtual university becomes an inevitable issue for
the virtual university research society. This paper proposes
a so-called open agent architecture that can integrate
developed agents to the virtual university system and
allows specified people to modify the agents when it is
- 13. Jianhua Ma, Runhe Huang and Timothy K. Shih, Co-Navigation
on the World Wide Web over the Internet, in Edited Proceeding
of Intelligent Multimedia Computing and Communications, pp131-140,
International Conference on Intelligent Multimedia and Distance
Education, June, 2001, USA.
- It is noted that the current popular browsers such as
Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Communicator
only allow a single user freely navigate on the Web. However,
there is increasing demand of co-navigation on the WWW
over the Internet, that is, multi-users in different sites
can simultaneously navigate the Web-based virtual world
together. This paper describes a shared Web browser that
enables a group of users share not only a Web document
but also operations on the browser and Web documents.
To be platform independent, the browser is implemented
in Java language under a server-client model. The server
program is a Java application and the client program is
a Java applet. To overcome Java applet security restrictions,
it is indispensable to develop and implement a Web proxy
server to access and/or download Web documents in remote
Web sites on behalf of clients. The paper also shows how
to integrate the browser into VCR (virtual collaboration
- Runhe Huang and Jianhua Ma, The Design of an Architecture
for Incorporating Developed Agents to a Virtual Educational
System, Proceedings of 19th International Conference on
Computer Processing of Oriental Languages, May 2001, Korea.
- This paper proposes an architecture for incorporating
developed agents to a virtual educational system. As we
know, a virtual educational system is a complex system
that is far beyond to put web documents to a web site.
In fact, it is involved enormous work with people, virtual
environment, and virtual facilities. People may release
from heavy work if they can use intelligent agents developed
by other parties. However, how to incorporating the developed
agents to a virtual educational system becomes problem.
It seems an open architecture is needed. This paper describes
such architecture with which a virtual educational system
can easily and flexibly integrate the developed agents.
- Jianhua Ma and Runhe Huang, Timothy K. Shih, Qun Jin,
Implementation of a Shared Web Browser Using Java Technology,
Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Computer Processing
of Oriental Languages, May 2001, Korea.
- The shared Web browser is a collaborative tool that
enables multi-users in physically different sites to simultaneously
view a same Web document over the Internet. Using the
browser, a group of users share not only a Web document
but also operations such as entering a new URL link, clicking
a hyperlink in a Web page, changing a size of the browser,
moving the scroll bar, etc. Due to Java security restrictions,
the shared browser client, i.e., the applet, cannot directly
access and download Web documents from other remote hosts
except the host the applet came from. This problem has
been solved via a Web proxy server through which clients
can access Web documents including HTML, image, and other
multimedia files resided in any other remote hosts. This
paper is focused on describing the design ideas and implementations
of the Web proxy server.
- J. Ma, R. Huang, and R. Nakatani, Towards a Natural
Internet-Based Collaborative Environment with support of Object
Physical and Social Characteristics, International Journal
of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, V0l. 11,
No. 1 (2001), pp37-53, World Scientific Publishing Company.
-Objects in this article refer to sharable applications,
such as a whiteboard and a video player, used by multi-users
who are in different sites and have computers connected
to networks. The objects are important elements in our
Internet-based desktop collaborative system, called virtual
collaboration room. We argue that a natural collaborative
environment should be developed in a framework of using
both a room metaphor and an object metaphor, i.e., emulating
the fundamental characteristics of real rooms and real
objects, respectively. This article gives the first systematic
specifications of object physical and social characteristics
and discusses how to exploit and implement the object
characteristics in VCR. A preliminary prototype of platform
independent real-time audio/video communications among
multiple users is also described. It can be used together